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Testing is a technical process or activity where software is being tested to identify bugs, errors, defects, and issues in applications to improve their quality. Testing of software ensures the application is developed as per requirements or not. In testing, testers test products or applications to cross-verify against the requirements or test cases of the applications. Testing means testing all functional and non-functional requirements of an application or product as per user or business expectations.
Software testing is mainly categorized into two approaches.
These two approaches are responsible for achieving the complete end-to-end testing of applications. The manual approach is refer to basic approach where automation refers to advance testing approach.
Basically manual testing provides two techniques of testing one is Blackbox testing and second is Whitebox testing. In Black box testing tester test application through the user interface without interacting with actual code where in Whitebox testing tester test internal working of application. Manual testing is one of the powerful approaches to test applications by following manual practices. By using a manual approach, testers can perform different types of testing, which helps improve the quality of the application. Manual testing plays an important role in achieving quality in applications. In manual testing testers can perform different types of testing like Functional testing, Integration testing, System testing, Regression testing, Sanity testing, Smoke testing, Database testing etc.
Software testing can be achieved using different methods, such as Blackbox testing, Whitebox testing, agile testing, Grey box testing, and ad hoc testing. But these days, the most popular methodology is the Agile methodology, which is used by most companies to test applications. The main objective of Agile methodology is to provide customer satisfaction through its interactive process of testing applications. In this methodology, modules of software are divided into multiple parts and tested. The agile model provides an incremental iterative approach to the testing process.
The software testing process run through the different phases called Software testing life cycle I.e. STLC. The Software testing life cycle contain different phases like Test Planning, Test Analysis, Test Design, Test Setup Environment, Test Execution, Test Closure, Defect Retesting. STLC plays key role to execute testing process or activities efficiently. STLC model helps to achieved the Quality and Control Iin testing through Software testing process is structured approach which ensures quality, reliability and functionality of Software applications.
By using a manual or automated approach, we can test different types of applications end-to-end like desktop applications, web applications, mobile applications, IOT-based applications, front-end applications, back-end applications, and databases. Both approaches support all mentioned application types on the basis of front-end or back-end applications with the help of different types of testing types, steps, techniques, tools, activities, rules, resources, process.
There are different types of software development environments, like Dev, UAT, and Production. Testers can test both front-end and back-end applications in different development environments, like development, UAT, or production, using both manual and automated testing efficiently. Both testing approaches have a different impact on different environments, while test applications help deliver the final product to customers.
There are different types of testing tools available on the market to test different types of applications in manual or automated testing. The tools are used for project management, case management, bug or defect tracking tools, and test automation tools in testing environments. There are multiple tools available on the market for test case management tools like Atlassian Jira, TestLink management, TestRail, PracticeTest, and qTestManager, as well as bug or defect management tools like Jira, Bugzilla, Mantis, Trac.
Manual testing tools for front-end testing like Cypress, TestComplete, Katalon, etc. For back-end testing, tools like Postman and Swagger are the most familiar. When we talk about Automation testing tools, there are also multiple open source tools for front-end as well as back-end tools in the market, like Selenium WebDriver, which supports front-end testing as well as “Rest Assured Library” for API testing.
When we talk about the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches, each has its own pros and cons from a testing perspective. Both manual and automated testing approaches are powerful, but when we talk about manual testing, all testing processes or activities are done manually, which results in time-consuming, and requiring multiple or skilled resources, whereas in automated testing, all testing processes or activities are done automatically, which results in improved testing speed, save time and provide efficiency. While talking about manual advantages over automation, testers can test all kinds of applications as well as each and every feature of applications manually. In automation testing, there are some limitations in some cases of testing features or complex test cases of applications.
When a question comes to mind, like why testing is required, the answer will be in one word, i.e. ”customer satisfaction” or “expected or right product” or “quality product" Testing is enforced to achieve the business requirements of the application. By performing testing, we can assure and control the quality of applications. That’s why we can deliver the right as well as expected product or application to the customer, which will satisfy the user. Testing is fully responsible for achieving the goal or objective of products or applications that meet the actual or expected requirements of product or application users. Product delivery totally depends on the execution of the testing process, which defines whether the product or application should be delivered to the customer or not. Testing is always required to gain confidence in terms of software operations and maintenance.
Today's technology is completely going to make use of automation, so the answer to the given question will be automation, but that does not mean that the manual approach is deprecated from the industry; it still exists in the market, but the form is being changed, and we called it the hybrid approach. The hybrid testing approach is widely used in industry to achieve 100% test completion on projects. The hybrid approach means testing can be done using both manual and automated approaches on the basis of specific percentage test cases complexity.
For example, it can be used as 40% manual and 60% automation in the same project depending on test cases, features, or functional complexity, or it can be different percentage wise. In today's automation industry, the hybrid testing approach is preferable for most projects. Both approaches are going to be used in the market in the form of hybrids, which accelerate the testing process or activities very well in different domain projects.
To draw conclusions is not hard, but quite tricky because both approaches have their own pros and cons that affect the testing process or activities. The manual testing approach is the basic building block or pillar of the whole testing process or activities, on which the automation approach executes the testing process successfully with the help of different tools. As we know, today's industry is completely moving towards automation. In that case, the automation testing approach is best suited. Automation testing is required to achieve quality and control in a product or application in terms of time, speed, efficiency, accuracy and automatic report generation.